GLOSSARY OF TERMS
 
DR. EDWARD M. VARDON’S GLOSSARY OF TERMS

Dr. Edward M. Vardon was a well established bulldogger of the 1950’s.
He owned the top bulldog which was also the top Non Sporting dog for several years.

ANGULATION – The angles formed by meeting of the bones, mainly, the shoulder, upper arm, stifle, and hock.
BALANCED – A consistent whole, symmetrical; correctly proportioned head to body, height to length, etc.
BARREL – Rounded rib section.
BONE – The relative size (girth) of a dog’s leg bones —substance.
BRINDLE – A dog with an acceptable body colors usually with a superimposed pattern of black stripes.
BRISKET – The forepart of the body below the chest, between the forelegs.
BURR – The inside of the ear.
BUTTERFLY NOSE – A parti-colored nose, i.e. dark, spotted with flesh color.
CHEST – Forepart of the body between the shoulder blades and above the brisket.
CHOPS – Jowls or pendulous flesh of the lips and jaw.
COBBY – Short bodied; compact.
COW HOCKED – When the hocks turn toward each other.
CUSHION – Fullness or thickness of the upper lips.
DOWN-FACED – Lacks turn-up.
DOWN IN PASTERN – When weak or faulty pastern joints, tendons or muscles cause pronounced angulation at the pastern and let the foot down.
DUDLEY NOSE – Liver color or brown nose. Disqualification.
ENTROPIAN – Inversion of the edge of the eyelid.
FLEWS – Upper lips pendulous, particularly at their inner corners.
FOREFACE – The front part of the head, before the eyes ... muzzle.
FRONT – The forepart of the body as viewed head on; i.e. forelegs, chest, brisket and shoulder line.
FURROW – A slight indentation or median line down the center of the skull to the stop.
LAYBACK – Receding nose accompanied by an undershot jaw.
MUZZLE – The head in front of the eyesnasal bone, nostrils and jaw ... foreface
OCCIPUT - Upper, back point of skull.
LIGHT EYES – Lighter than medium brown in bulldogs.
ROACH BACK – A convex curvature of the back beginning back of the shoulders and rising to the loins, then down to the tail.
ROSE EAR – A small drop ear which folds over and back so as to reveal the burr.
SCREW TAIL – A naturally short tail twisted in more or less spiral formation.
STIFLE – The joint of the hind leg between the thigh and the second thigh; the dog’s knee.
STOP – The step up from nose to skull.
STRAIGHT HOCKED – Lacking appreciable angulation at the hock joints, straight behind.
SWAYBACK – Concave curvature of the back line between the withers and the hipbones.
TURNUP – An uptilted foreface.
TYPE – The characteristic qualities distinguishing a breed; the embodiment of a standards essentials.
UNDERSHOT – The front teeth (incisors) of the lower jaw overlapping or projecting beyond the front teeth of the upper jaw when the mouth is closed.
WHEEL BACK – The back line arched markedly over the loin; roached.
WRINKLE – Loose, folding skin on forehead and foreface.
WRY FACE OR JAW – Out of alignment; twisted. Upper and lower jaws not parallel.

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